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Prevalence of S. typhimurium isolated from fresh chicken samples collected from different local markets in Najaf province during April to October 2012.
Sanaa Ghali Jabur Dr. Eman Mhamed Jar Allah sciences Col./ Kufa Univ. sciences Col. / Babylon Univ.
Abstract
Salmonella typhimurium is one of most importance serovars associated with human disease and commonly reported from poultry in developing countries therefore this study amid to analysis S. typhimurium distribution in locally freshly chicken samples in Najaf province. A total of 1440 fresh chicken samples were collected from local markets in Najaf city during April to October 2012 to detect the prevalence of Salmonella typhimurium in fresh different parts of chicken. The results of S. typhimurium prevalence showed the gizzard chicken food sample was get highest percentage (43.45%) followed with liver (39.90%) where the meat appeared the lowest percentage (38.46%). The effect of season variation in liver samples was gave highest Prevalence of S. typhimurium in summer season that reached (46.42%) followed by it in autumn (32.85%) while the lowest Prevalence was shown in sprig 28.5% with differ between three season records. while in meat it was high spread in spring and autumn that reached to (64.28%) and (50%) respectively comparison with it in summer season that reduced (4.76%). In gizzard was observed in seasons of summer 49.18% and autumn (40.15%) where reduced in spring to (28.57%).
Introduction
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Non-typhoidal salmonellosis (food poisoning) is a food borne disease of primary concern in developed, as well as developing countries. Although this disease is self-limiting, can also lead to life-threatening systemic infections in immunocompromise patients (5; 6) therefore this disease become among one of the major public health problems that are made worldwide each year up to 1.3 billion cases of acute gastroenteritis and diarrhea resulting in 3 million deaths annually(15; 19).
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Salmonella Typhimurium is one of the two most common serovars (Enteritidis is others) associated with human disease worldwide, therefore these are importance to public health (1; 2; 8; 21). These two serotypes are commonly reported from poultry in developing countries such as in the Indian subcontinent (14; 17), for all these impacts study, the present was aimed to analysis S. typhimurium distribution in locally freshly chicken samples.
Materials and methods
Collection of chicken sample( Study area and period )
The research was focused on Najaf province. The study population included only the fresh chickens (that use as human food) from 15 different locally markets regions that distribute in Najaf during the period extended from April to October 2012, a total of 480 chicken were taken from four locally markets randomly in each region as 8 chicken(weighed 1-1.5 Kg) from each market, putted into separate plastic bags, cooled in an ice box and immediately transported to laboratory. The different samples of each chicken ( liver, gizzard and meat) collected individually, homogenized and diluted.
Isolation and Identification of S. typhimurium
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Twenty five grams from each Meat , Liver and gizzard of each chicken were individually homogenized and diluted in 225ml of Tetrathionat broth medium then from each one of sample, serial dilution were performed to10-6 . one milliliter from each dilution was cultured on selective enrichment XLD medium in three replicates, incubation at 43°C for 24 h. for isolation of enteric pathogens Salmonella, and incubation was extended to 48h to increase visibility of H2S Production. (20).
Calculate the prevalence of S. typhimurium isolates
The presumptively positive Salmonella isolates were confirmed by the biochemical method (20) and S. typhimurium with slide agglutination test and then the prevalence of Salmonella and S. typhimurium isolates Calculated by equation below(12).
number of sample that appear isolates
prevalence of isolates= ---------------------------------------------------------------×1oo
total number of collected samples
Serological Test:
All isolates identified biochemically as Slamonella were serologically examined by a slide agglutination test that performed with Polyvalent "O" Antisera , specific O antisera (SIFIN), Polyvalent H antisera And specific H antisera (SIFIN), The somatic (O) and flagellar (H) antigens were characterized by slide agglutination with commercially available anti-sera (SIFIN, Germany) and the serotype was assigned according to the Kauffmann-White scheme (16; 20).
Statistical Analysis
The data were analyzed statistically, using the least significance differences test (LSD), in experiment of two factor and analysis of variance (ANOVA) at the P value level of 0.05 (3).
Results and Discussion
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A total of 1440 fresh chicken food samples that include liver, meat and gizzard were examined for isolation and identification of Salmonella spp. specially S. typhimurium organisms from 15 different regions during April to October 2012 in Najaf province(table 1) .
The results of Salmonella typhimurium prevalence in fresh chicken food source showed the gizzard samples were get highest percentage (43.45%) followed with liver samples (39.90%) where the meat appeared the lowest percentage( 38.46%)as showing table 2 .
Table (2): Effect of chicken sample type on Prevalence of S. typhimurium in fresh chicken food source collected from different local markets.
Food Sample of chicken Source
Number
of Sample
with Salmonella isolate
Number
of Sample
appeared S. typhimurium isolate
Prevalence (%)
Liver
203
81
39.90
Meat
65
25
38.46
Gizzard
359
156
43.45
Total
627
262
41
LSD P? 0.05
1.2
The highest Prevalence of S. typhimurium was observed in gizzard compared with liver and meat may be related to food seeds contamination with Salmonella that eat in chickens birds in farm and in local markets that may be contaminated via litter, faeces , fluff and others because some studies refer to the sources of Salmonella infection for domestic fowls are
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Table(1): Geographic distribution of chicken samples collection regions in Najaf province during period extended from April to October 2012.
No.
Date
Region
Number of samples
Liver
Meat
Gizzard
Total
With Salmonella spp.
With S. typhimurium
Total
With Salmonella spp.
With S. typhimurium
Total
With Salmonella spp.
With S. typhimurium
1
8/4
Kufa 1
32
5
1
32
2
1
32
10
2
2
15/4
Al-askary1
32
7
2
32
5
3
32
15
4
3
29/4
Al-makrama
32
9
3
32
7
5
32
17
6
4
6/5
Al-melad
32
11
4
32
5
1
32
22
8
5
20/5
Al-kadisia
32
12
5
32
4
0
32
23
9
6
27/5
Kufa2
32
13
6
32
3
0
32
23
11
7
3/6
Al-ansar
32
17
8
32
2
0
32
27
14
8
10/6
Al-rashed
32
19
9
32
2
0
32
29
15
9
24/6
Alaskary2
32
20
10
32
2
0
32
30
16
10
26/8
Al-askan-
32
20
10
32
3
0
32
31
18
11
9/9
Old city1
32
19
8
32
8
6
32
31
18
12
16/9
Al-kufa3
32
17
6
32
7
3
32
30
15
13
30/9
Old-city2
32
14
4
32
7
3
32
28
9
14
7/10
Sharia- almadena
32
12
3
32
5
2
32
25
7
15
21/10
Kan almakadar
32
8
2
32
3
1
32
18
4
Total
480
203
81
480
65
25
480
359
156
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numerous. Infection can occur via horizontal transmission by litte, faeces, feed, water, fluff, dust, shavings, straw, insects, equipment and other fomites contaminated with Salmonella and by contact with other chicks or poults, rodents, pets, wild birds, other domestic and wild animals and personnel contaminated with Salmonella (13).
The lowest Prevalence of S. typhimurium was founded in meat compared with liver and gizzard may be belong to use of boiling water in the cleaning of chicken that observed in local markets in some isolation time that common in Iraq condition .The high Prevalence of S. typhimurium in liver compared with meat may be related to some factors such as virulence plasmid that provide bacteria ability which consider as host immune resistance and facilitate the growth within macrophage in liver (18).
Analysis of 480 samples of liver in three season, spring, summer and autumn was gave highest Prevalence of S. typhimurium in summer season that reached 46.42% followed by prevalence in autumn and 32.85% while the lowest Prevalence was shown in sprig 28.5% with differ between three season records as shown in table (3).
Table (3): Effect of season variation on prevalence of S. tphimurium in fresh liver chicken samples
Season of isolation
Number
of Sample
with Salmonella isolate
Number
of Sample
with S. tphimurium isolate
Prevalence (%)
Spring
21
6
28.5
Summer
112
52
46.42
Autumn
70
23
32.85
Total
182
75
41.20
LSD P? 0.05
3.99
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The reduce of S. typhimurium prevalence in liver during spring compared with summer and autumn may be related to lowering temperature during spring compared with summer and autumn. the prevalence of Salmonella is higher during hot dry and monsoon seasons(11).in addition to some factors such as virulence plasmid that provide bacteria ability which consider as host immune resistance and facilitate the growth within macrophage in liver (18).
The prevalence of S. typhimurium in meat samples during three season, spring, summer and autumn was high spread in spring and autumn that reached to 64.28% and 50% respectively comparison with prevalence in summer season that reduced 4.76% table (4).
Table (4): Effect of season variation on prevalence of S. tphimurium in fresh chicken meat samples
Season of isolation
Number
of Sample
with Salmonella isolate
Number of Sample with S. tphimurium isolate
Prevalence (%)
Spring
14
9
64.28
Summer
21
1
4.76
Autumn
30
15
50
Total
65
25
39
LSD P? 0.05
13.68
The lowest Prevalence of S. typhimurium was founded in meat during summer may be belong to use of boiling water in the cleaning of chicken that observed in local markets in summer isolation time that common in Iraq condition.
This step of study included Analysis of 96 samples of gizzard in, spring, 224 summer and 160 in autumn. A high S. typhimurium
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Prevalence was observed in seasons of summer 49.18% and autumn 40.15% where reduced in spring to 28.57%. table (5).
Table (5): Effect of season variation on Prevalence of S. tphimurium in fresh chicken gizzard samples.
Season of isolation
Total Number
of Sample
appear Salmonella isolate
Number
of Sample
appear S. tphimurium isolate
Prevalence (%)
Spring
42
12
28.57
Summer
185
91
49.18
Autumn
132
53
40.15
Total
359
156
43.45
LSD P? 0.05
8.86
The high Prevalence of S. typhimurium in Summer and Autumn in gizzard compared with spring might be due to the fact that prevalence of Salmonella is higher during hot dry and monsoon seasons. (11). This result identical to results of study that referred to the imported broiler carcasses were 10.62 times more than the yield Salmonella in the hot season as compared to the winter season. (12).
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15. Razzaque MA, M Bedair, S Abbas and T Al-Mutawa, 2009. Economic impact of calf mortality on dairy farms in Kuwait. Pakistan Vet J, 29(3): 97-101.
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أنتشار بكتريا Salmonella typhimurium المعزولة من نماذج الدجاج المحمي المذبوح
حديثا في الأسواق المحمية لمحافظة النجف خلال الفترة الممتدة من نيسان إلى تشرين الأول
2102
سناء غالي جبر د.أيماان محماد
جا ا رلله
كمياااة العماااوم ة جامعاااة الكوفاااة كمياااة العماااومة
جامعة بابل
الخلاصة
تعتبر بكتريا typhimurium Salmonella واحدة من أهم الأنماط المصمية المسبببة
لمرض التسمم الغبااي يب الأنسبان وت بير معظبم الت بارير الب ان البدوا ن وصاصبة البد ا مبن
اهببم المصببادر المموذببة لمغببااا لببالى هببديا البحببت البب د ا رسبة انت بار بكتريببا typhimurium
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Salmonella المعزولبببة مبببن اينببباا الببد ا يبب الأسبببوا المحميبببة لمحايظبببة الن بب حيبببت
تضمنا الد ا رسة مع 0441 اينة من الد ا المحم المابوح حديذا بواقع 441 نمبوا مبن كب
مبن الكبببد والمحببم وال انصبة مببن 01 منط بة مصتم ببة يبب محايظببة الن ب صبا يتبرة امتببدا مببن
نيسبان البب ت برين الأو مبن سببنة 2102 . أظهبر تحميب نببوع النمببوا وال صب المنبباص تبب ذي ا ر
نوايببا امبب انت بار بكتريببا serovar Typhimurium Salmonella اا ظهبرا يبب 222
نمبوا بنسببة 40.22 % يكانبا أامب نسببة يب نمباا ال انصبة 44.41 % ذبم يب الكببد يكانبا
%45.51 بينمبا اقب نسبببة ظهبرا يبب نمبباا المحببم يكانببا 44.42 %. امببا مببا يصبب تبب ذير
% ال صب المنباص يكانبا اامب نسببة يب الصبي بالنسببة الب نمباا الكببد اا بمغبا 42.42
تبعها يص الصري 42.41 % واقمها ي يص الربيع 24.1 % اما ي نماا المحم يكانا اكذر
انت با ا ر يبب يصبم الربيببع والصريبب يبمغببا 24.24 و 11 (% امبب التببوال بالم ارنببة البب يصب
الصي حيت انص ضا ال 4.32 % ي حين ي نماا ال انصة يكبان أكذبر انت بار يب يصبم
الصبببي والصريببب يوصببب الببب 45.04 % و 41.01 امببب التبببوال واقمبببف يببب يصببب الربيبببع
.%24.13

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