The origin and morphology of Al-Tar caves, West Karbala, Iraq



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احمد عباس حسن المؤذن
25/03/2019 12:44:02

This study aims to interpret the origin and morphology of Al-Tar caves based on comprehensive analysis of
fractures. The current research highlights the significant impacts of the geological system (especially jointing and
lithology) in forming and developing caves in the study area. Around 50 caves and 100 joints planes have been
recognised. Field measurements were transformed into three dimensions in geometric form. A location map, stratigraphic
column, and survey data map of caves have been produced in order to resolve the bond of Al-Tar caves
with joints in the study area. Caves and joints systems are linked with the nearly horizontal beds in the stable shelf
of Iraq. Caves created by two sets of joints. Joints form two main systems; each system comprises two orthogonal
sets of vertical or nearly vertical joints. A three-dimension model was used dependent on field measurements, and
the model predicted where caves occurred and how they formed. Presuming autonomy, the way of alignment of
caves was acquired, which was related to the direction of joints. Joints and passages orientations are consistent with
regionally expected directions. After examining the anatomy and organisational position of these caves, it was
demonstrated that they have large spaces or corridors, which have circular or steep entrances, most importantly
where the dip angles of rock layers are sub-horizontal.

وصف الــ Tags لهذا الموضوع   Origin . Morphology . Structural geology . Joints . Al-Tar . Caves . Karbala . Iraq